Laboratory manual for general chemistry beran

Bumping is a phenomenon in chemistry where homogenous liquids boiled in a test tube or other container will superheat and, upon nucleation, rapid boiling will expel the liquid from the container. Bumping occurs when liquids are heated or has its pressure reduced very rapidly, typiy in smooth, clean glassware.

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The hardest part of bubble formation is the formation of the small bubble; once a bubble has formed, it can grow quickly.

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Because the liquid is typiy above its boiling point, when the liquid finally starts to boil, a large vapor bubble is formed that pushes the liquid out of the test tube, typiy at hh speed.

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Furthermore, if a liquid is boiled and cooled back down, the chance of bumping increases on each subsequent boil, because each heating cycle progressively de-gasses the liquid, reducing the number of remaining nucleation sites.

Laboratory manual for general chemistry beran:

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